r30 - 18 Mar 2010 - 17:25:46 GMT - VladAtanasiuYou are here: Bernstein > Main Web > ImageProcessing

Image Processing

This concerns software for image processing.

Main developers: DUT, VenueViskom (OEAW)

ALERT! Reporting bugs and making wishes is done on BugsAndWishes.


Tasks for image processing, their ranking and development planning is in this document.

Available software

Following is a list of known software specifically designed for paper expertise.

  1. AD751 - Measures laid lines density along horizontal stripes of the input image. Automatic modus, can process images in bulk. Multilingual. Wrtitten in Matlab. Stand alone, Windows. OpenSource. By VladAtanasiu. Software website.
  2. BlueNile - Preprocessing software for wire structure enhancement or removal (to leave only the watermark visible). Manual and automatic modus, no bulk images processing. Wrtitten in Matlab. Stand alone, Windows. OpenSource. By VladAtanasiu. Software website.
  3. Filigrana - Has an useful interactive laid lines density measurement tool. Contact PeterTschudin or MartinKluge.
  4. WatermarkScissors - This code takes as input binary scans of a watermark repertory page exhibiting a number of handdrawn watermarks and segments the page in smaller images according to the evaluated number of watermarks. Read instalation instructions below (*) and download Windows XP standalone. By VladAtanasiu.
  5. WMT - Has an interactive watermark height and width measurement tool. Contact AloisHaidinger or VictorKarnaukhov.

Other software useful for paper studies

  1. Mark2File - Interactively place landmarks on watermarks and store the coordinates for future processing in a text file. Matlab, Windows standalone, OpenSource. Based on a code by Finn Lindgren, augumented by VladAtanasiu. Read instalation instructions below (*) and download the Windows XP standalone or the Matlab files.

HELP ( * ) To run the standalone Matlab applications making reference to this paragraph unzip the .zip file marked for downloading to the folder of your choice, then double-click on the .exe file bearing the name of the application. The applications need Matlab Component Runtime (MCR) to run. You can install MCR by downloading MCRInstaller_2007.exe (77 Mb) for WatermarkScissors or MCRInstaller_2008.exe (150 Mb) for Mark2File, double-clicking on it and following the displayed installation instructions.

Paper reproduction techniques

A list of techniques and their pro and cons is given in the Bernstein Handbook here.

Read details about the BacklightSubtraction reproduction method.

Expected profits

  1. Authentification of a questioned paper based on a reference paper set (expertise)
  2. Identification of paper (date, location, paper mill) cumulating data extracted from
Elements of the paper structure (expertise, history)
  1. Variation of technology in time and space (history)
  2. Estimation of paper quality (history)

Efficiency per reproduction techniques

This lists the efficiency of the software in respect to the technique used for reproducing the paper structure.

  1. Betaradiography
  2. X-Ray
  3. Infrared
  4. Laser surface scan
  5. Backlight
  6. Rubbing
  7. Freehand drawing


Atanasiu, Vlad: Assessing paper origin and quality by means of large-scale laid lines density measurements / Vlad Atanasiu. - In: Paper as a medium of cultural heritage, archaeology and conservation : 26th Congress IPH. - Rom : Istituto centrale per la patologia del libro, 2004. - pp. [172]-184

Belov, V. V.: Physical and mathematical methods for the visualisation and identification of watermarks / V. V. Belov ; V. A. Esipova ; V. T. Kalaida ; Klimkin, V. M.. - In: Solanus. - London N.S. 13 (1999). - pp. 80-92

Brown, A. Jean E.: When images work faster than words: the integration of content-based image retrieval with the Northumbria Watermark Archive / A. Jean E. Brown et al. - In: Restaurator 23 (2002), 3, pp. 187-203 : ill., ref.

Dietz, Georg: Arbeitsanleitung zur Isolation von Papierstrukturen : Wasserzeichen aus Zeichnungen und Graphiken mittels Bildsubtraktion / Georg Dietz. - Stand: November 2004. - [Florenz] : Istituto Universitario Olandese di Storia dell'Arte, 2004. - 17 fol.

Haidinger, Alois: Zur Wiedergabe von Wasserzeichen mittels weicher Röntgenstrahlung / Alois Haidinger ; F. L. [Franz Lackner]. - In: Gazette du livre médiéval. - Paris 15 (1989). - pp. 12-15

LaChapelle, Ariane de: La bêtaradiographie et l'étude des papiers : beaucoup plus qu'une belle image. - In: Gazette du livre médiéval. - Paris 34 (1999). - pp. 18-24

LaChapelle, Ariane de: Les relevés de filigranes = Watermark records = I rilievi di filigrane / Ariane de La Chapelle ; André Le Prat. Trad. anglaise: Geoffrey Capner ; trad. italienne: Giovanna Bertazoni. Service Culturel [du Musée du Louvre]. - Paris : La Documentation Française, 1996. - 47 pp.

LaChapelle, Ariane de: Filigranes et papiers: le problème de la fiche descriptive, les méthodes de relevés et l'application de la bêtaradiographie / Ariane de La Chapelle. - In: Conservazione dei materiali librari, archivistici et grafici / a cura di Marina Regni et Piera Giovanna Tordella. - Torino : Umberto Allemandi & Co., 1996. - pp. 235-241

Neuheuser, Hanns Peter: Wasserzeichendarstellung mit Hilfe der Thermographie : Archivische Diagnostik Teil 3 / ein Beitrag von Hanns Peter Neuheuser, Volker Märgner u. Peter Meinlschmidt. - In: ABI-Technik. - München 25 (2005) 4. - pp. 266-277

Small Carol Ann: Phosphorescence watermark imaging. - In: Puzzles in paper / ed. by Daniel W. Mosser ... - New Castle, Del. : Oak Knoll Press ; London : British Library, 2000. - p. 169-181 : 18 ill.

Schnitger, Dierk: Elektronenradiographie als Hilfsmittel für die Identifizierung schwer oder nicht erkennbarer Wasserzeichen / Dierk Schnitger ; Eva Ziesche ; Eberhard Mundry. - In: Gutenberg-Jahrbuch. - Mainz 58 (1983). - pp. 49-67

Schnitger, Dierk: Elektronenradiographie, ein Hilfsmittel für die Analyse von Wasserzeichen und Miniaturmalereien / D. Schnitger ; E. Mundry. - In: Restaurator. - Copenhagen 5 (1981/82) 1/2. - pp. 156-164

Schoonover, David: Techniques of reproducing watermarks : a pract. introd. - In: Essays in paper analysis / ed. by Stephen Spector. - Washington : Folger Shakespeare Library ; London ; Toronto : Associates Univ. Pr. 1987. - pp. 154-[167]

Zamperoni, Piero: Wasserzeichenextraktion aus digitalisierten Bildern mit Methoden der digitalen Bildsignalverarbeitung. - In: Das Papier. - Darmstadt 43 (1989) 4. - S. 133-143

Zweeden, Jan van: Exposure time determination in beta-radiography of watermarks / Jan van Zweeden ; Lucas B. Beentjes. - In: Quaerendo. - Leiden 12 (1982) 4. - pp. 309-315 : 5 tab., 1 ill.

Varia documents

-- VladAtanasiu - 24 Aug 2006

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pdfpdf atanasiu2005_-_Paper_Study_Toolbox_Overview.pdf manage 95.2 K 24 Aug 2006 - 18:08 VladAtanasiu Features to analyse in paper reproductions
xlsxls Planning_-_ImgProcessing.xls manage 22.5 K 11 Sep 2006 - 20:30 VladAtanasiu Planning of image processing tasks
zipzip Bernstein_repertories_binary_sample_images.zip manage 95.8 K 19 Jan 2007 - 14:45 VladAtanasiu Sample images from the repertories
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